A recent study shows that the brain edits memories relentlessly, updating the past with new information. Scientists say that this isn’t a question of having a bad memory. Instead, they think the brain updates memories to make them more relevant and useful now–even if they’re not a true representation of the past.

The study, conducted at Northwestern University, asked 17 people to look at images of a scene, like a beach or a farm, with a small object, like an apple, layered on top. They were then shown a scene with the object in  a new location. Then they were asked to move the object to its location in the first picture; they always got it wrong.

Finally, the participants were shown the original scene, with the apple in three places: the original location, the second location or a bran new location. They always chose the second, updated location.

“Their memory from the original location has been overwritten,” says Joel Voss, an assistant professor of neuroscience at Northwestern. “It’s taken that new location and stuck it to the original photograph.”

This is a contrived laboratory setting, Voss explains, so it’s not guaranteed that the brain is taking current events in your life and stuffing them into your past. But the researchers had people do the experiment while observing their brain with a special MRI scanner.

The brain structure that the people in this experiment were using when they were rewriting their memories, the hippocampus, is very involved in autobiographical memory. “It’s essentially as if the hippocampus doesn’t care if it’s putting together two new things,” Voss says.

The findings were published Wednesday in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Voss and his co-author Donna Bridge tested the participants’ memory of the original image, and they remembered it very well. So this wasn’t a case of bad memory overall. It wasn’t until they were asked to move the object and place it in the original spot that the memories changed.

This article is from NPR. Read the full article here.

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